1.         The products of mitosis are

A.    one nucleus containing twice as much DNA as the parent nucleus.

B.    two genetically identical cells.

C.    four nuclei containing half as much DNA as the parent nucleus.

D.    four genetically identical nuclei.

E.     two genetically identical nuclei.

2.         The purpose of mitosis is to ____________, while the purpose of meiosis is to ____________.

A.    make new cells, and only germ cells in the gonads do it; make eggs or sperm, and body cells do it

B.    make eggs or sperm, and only germ cells in the gonads do it; make new cells, and body cells do it

C.    make eggs or sperm, and only germ cells in the nucleus do it; make new cells, and body cells do it

D.    make new cells, and body cells do it; make eggs or sperm, and only germ cells in the gonads do it

3.         A cell containing chloroplasts, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum would be

A.    a prokaryotic cell.

B.    an animal cell.

C.    a plant cell.

D.    a fungus.

E.     none of the above.

4.         Rough ER is "rough" because of the presence of which of the following on its surface?

A.    proteins.

B.    ribosomes.

C.    lipids.

D.    vesicles.

E.     cilia.

5.         The structure of a cell membrane may be described as a

A.    phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded.

B.    carbohydrate bilayer with proteins embedded.

C.    layer of proteins with carbohydrates embedded.

D.    layer of proteins with phospholipids embedded.

E.     special arrangement of glucose molecules.

6.         The fact that most monosomies and trisomies are lethal to human embryos illustrates

A.    the importance of the orderly distribution of genetic material during meiosis.

B.    the exchange of genetic information during crossing over.

C.    the advantage of sexual reproduction to the survival of a population.

D.    that each chromosome contains a single molecule of DNA.

E.     that meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes.

7.         Osmosis is a process which involves the movement of

A.    proteins.

B.    water.

C.    lipids.

D.    nucleic acids.

E.     carbohydrates.

8.         Genetically diverse offspring result from

A.    mitosis.

B.    cloning.

C.    sexual reproduction.

D.    cytokinesis.

E.     anaphase.

9.         An egg and a sperm unite to form a new organism. In order to prevent the new organism from having twice as many chromosomes as its parents

A.    half of the chromosomes in the new organism quickly die off, leaving the correct number.

B.    half of the chromosomes from the egg, and half from the sperm, are ejected from the new cell.

C.    the large egg contains all the chromosomes, the tiny sperm only contributes some DNA.

D.    germ cells went through meiosis; the egg and sperm only have half the parental chromosomes.

10.       Which of the following is/are haploid?

A.    zygote.

B.    embryo cells.

C.    ovum.

D.    muscle cells.

E.     all of the above.

11.       The four haploid nuclei found at the end of meiosis differ from one another in their exact genetic composition.  SOME of this difference is the result of

A.    cytokinesis.

B.    replication of DNA during the S phase.

C.    separation of sister chromatids at anaphase II.

D.    spindle formation.

E.     crossing over during prophase I.

12.       If the somatic number of chromosomes in a goldfish is 94, how many chromosomes will each of the daughter  cells have following reduction division or meiosis I?

A.    94

B.    47

C.    188

D.    74

13.       The number of homologous pairs of chromosomes in typical human cells is

A.    2.

B.    46.

C.    23.

D.    50.

E.     66.

14.       The jelly-like fluid surrounding organelles is called

A.    cytoplasm.

B.    nucleoplasm.

C.    protoplasm.

D.    matrix.

E.     grana.

15.       How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete?

A.    one

B.    two

C.    three

D.    four

E.     five

16.       When human sex cells begin the process of gametogenesis they have 46 chromosomes.  When meiosis is completed, each daughter cell contains _____ chromosomes.

A.    92

B.    47

C.    46

D.    45

E.     23

17.       A cell entering mitosis with 40 chromosomes will form two new cells, each with

A.    10 chromosomes.

B.    20 chromosomes.

C.    40 chromosomes.

D.    46 chromomsomes.

E.     the number of chromosomes cannot be predicted from this information.

18.       The most devastating genetic problems result from

A.    monosomy of autosomes.

B.    trisomy of autosomes.

C.    monosomy of sex chromosomes.

D.    trisomy of sex chromosomes.

19.       Which of the following would destroy the cell if its membrane ruptured and the enzymes inside were released?

A.    nucleolus.

B.    plastids.

C.    lysosome.

D.    ribosome.

E.     golgi complex.

20.       During ______ the homologs separate.

A.    anaphase I

B.    telophase I

C.    prophase II

D.    metaphase II

21.       As part of your body's defenses against infection, armlike portions of white blood cells actually flow around bacteria and engulf it. This is an example of

A.    phagocytosis.

B.    pinocytosis.

C.    exocytosis.

D.    a passive (non-energy requiring) process.

E.     diffusion.

22.       A semipermeable membrane separates two solutions, A and B.  Solution A initially contains some iodine, and Solution B initially contains starch.   (Perhaps it would help to draw this set-up).  The membrane is permeable to iodine and water, but not to starch.  Iodine is light yellow-brown when starch is absent, but turns blue-black when starch is present.  At equilibrium, Solution B should be

A.    colorless.

B.    light yellow-brown.

C.    blue-black.

D.    an unpredictable color.

E.     none of the above.

23.       The net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to a lower water concentration is

A.    diffusion.

B.    tonicity.

C.    osmosis.

D.    bulk flow.

E.     facilitated diffusion.

24.       How does cell division differ between plant and animal cells?

A.    Plant cells have centrioles but animal cells do not.

B.    Animal cells have centromeres, but plant cells do not.

C.    Animal cells divide by the process of cleavage while plant cells do not.

D.    Plant cells divide by mitosis while animal cells divide by meiosis.

E.     Plant cells must form an aster while animal cells do not.

25.       All cells possess

A.    a cell membrane.

B.    cytoplasm.

C.    water.

D.    DNA.

E.     all of the above.

26.       Benign tumors

A.    don't grow.

B.    are cancerous.

C.    pose significant medical problems in all cases.

D.    grow to a certain size, then cease growing.

E.     none of these.