Chapter 7. Volcanism

After reading the chapter and attending all lectures and viewing the films, you should be able to:
1. diagram a labeled image of the anatomy of a volcano.
2. delineate the areas of the world where volcanoes occur, and relate them to plate tectonic theory.
3. explain the role magma viscosity and gas content play in determining whether an eruption will be explosive or peaceful.
4. illustrate how different rocks (e.g. obsidian, pumice, scoria) can form from lavas differing silica content.
5. distinguish between pahoehoe and aa lavas, and explain what the major difference is in their production.
6. explain to a non-science friend that it usually isn't the lava from a volcano that kills people, but rather the ejection of pyroclastic materials.
7. distinguish between the pyroclastic materials known as ash, cinders, lapilli, blocks and bombs.
8. discuss the way in which pyroclastic rocks (such as tuff and volcanic breccia) may be formed.
9. tell a friend why it is useless to try to outrun a nuée ardente, and why she shouldn't try to swim across a lahar.
10. explain why scientists who visit volcanoes and fumaroles usually wear protective breathing apparatus.
11. draw and label a cross-section of the three basic types of volcanic eruptive styles:  shield volcano, cinder cone, and composite (or strato-) volcano
12. discuss how lava flowing from a fissure eruption, known as flood basalt, can accumulate to form lava plateaus.
13. give a general account of North America's most famous recent eruption, Mount St. Helen's.
14. discuss the problems inherent to forecasting of volcanic eruptions.
15. demonstrate the potential for volcanism to alter earth's climate.

16. visit Volcano World to be able to report on what is erupting in the world now!