Chapter 8. Sedimentary Rocks

After reading the chapter and attending all lectures and viewing the films, you should be able to:
1. recall the parts of the rock cycle which apply to the formation of sedimentary rocks.
2. define sediments.
3. illustrate the roles of weathering, transport, and deposition in the formation of sedimentary rocks.
4. discuss the roles of compaction, cementation, and crystallization in the process of lithification.
5. classify any sedimentary rock based on whether it is detrital, or precipitated by chemical or biochemical means.
6. categorize sediments by their size using the Wentworth Scale.
7. define clastic texture.
8. state the distinguishing characteristic between conglomerate and breccia.
9. distinguish between roundness and sphericity.
10. distinguish between well- and poorly-sorted sediments.
11. discuss the features that distinguish a rock as "mature".
12. discuss the several ways in which limestones may be formed: biochemically and chemically.
13. explain how evaporites form and give several examples.
14. discuss the manner in which the following sedimentary structures are formed:
beds/strata bedding planes  graded bedding
cross-bedding ripple marks mud cracks
15. define fossil. Give examples of fossils preserved by the following methods:
direct preservation carbonization petrifaction
mold cast steinkern
freezing desiccation simple burial 
permineralization coprolites gastrolith
16. list and describe the requirements for fossilization; explain the significance of index fossils.
17. discuss the realm of the field of paleontology and some of its subdisciplines: paleozoology, palynology, micropaleontology, etc.
18. discuss the manner in which structures such as concretions, geodes, and nodules form.
19. explain to a friend why sedimentary rocks are often colorful.
20. describe the different types of sediments which might form along active and passive continental margins, and in the deep-ocean environment.
21. describe the formation of siliceous and calcareous oozes. Which of them will be found at the greatest depths?
22. explain the economic interest in manganese nodules

Critical Thinking Questions and Activities:
1. Under a microscope, compare the composition of sands from a variety of beaches. With such a variable composition, now can they all be called 'sand'? 

Field Trip Opportunities:
1. Visit the American Museum of Natural History in NYC, or the Smithsonian Institutes collection in Washington, DC to see diverse and spectacular fossils .
2. Local fossil collecting with the Scranton Mineralogical Society. Contact: Ed McFarland.