Geology, Test 1
Spring 98 Weekender

1: Approximately how old is the earth currently thought to be?
 A: 6000 years.
 B: 4.5 million years.
 C: 4.5 billion years.
 D: 15 billion years.
 E: 40 billion years.

2: Which of the following has existed unchanged from the time of earth's formation to the present?
 A: the continents.
 B: the atmosphere.
 C: mountain ranges.
 D: none of the above.
 E: Rosann's face.

3: Which of the following is FALSE?
 A: Metamorphic rocks always melt and become magma.
 B: Igneous rocks may undergo metamorphism.
 C: Sedimentary rocks may be weathered.
 D: When magma crystallizes, it becomes igneous rock.

4: Which one of the following is the thinnest layer?
 A: inner core
 B: outer core
 C: mantle
 D: crust
 E: asthenosphere

5: The San Andreas fault is a well known example of a __________ boundary.
 A: transform
 B: divergent
 C:  convergent
 D: interplate

6: New sea floor is created at this type of plate boundary:
 A: transform
 B: divergent
 C: convergent
 D: interplate

7: In science, a tentative, untested explanation is termed a/an
 A: theory.
 B: law.
 C: hypothesis.
 D: observation.
 E: none of the above.

8: A scientific _____ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that scientists agree best explains observable facts.
A: theory
B: law
C: hypothesis
D: observation
E: none of the above.

9: When solid rock is exposed at the earth's surface, it is subjected to the processes of  _____which gradually produce sediment.
A: lithification
B: crystallization
C: metamorphism
D: weathering.

10: According to the plate tectonics theory, the earth's rigid outer shelf is broken into individual pieces called
 A: hot spots.
 B: rafts.
 C: island archipelagos.
 D: crustal plates.
 E: continents.

11: Subduction zones are associated with which boundaries of plate tectonics?
 A: diverging
 B: converging
 C: a transform fault
 D: hot spots

12: At both diverging and converging boundaries, magma is created and cools to form
 A: sedimentary rock.
 B: metamorphic rock.
 C: igneous rock.
 D: acid rock.

13: A scientific theory (like plate tectonics or evolution)
 A: is so well tested that few scientists doubt its validity.
 B: requires many more additional observations before it can be generally accepted.
 C: consists of 'educated guesses'.
 D: is never subjected to further testing.
 E: forms the basis for the development of an hypothesis.

14: Which of the following is the thickest layer?
 A: crust
 B: lithosphere
 C: mantle
 D: outer core
 E: inner core

15: According to the plate tectonics model, the earth's outer shell is broken into individual
 pieces called plates. Upon which plate are you currently residing?
 A: the Pacific plate.
 B: the Juan de Fuca plate.
 C: the North American plate.
 D: the Eastern United States plate.
 E: the Dinner plate

16: Which of the following is/are properly matched?
 A: petroleum geologist . . . involved in the exploration and production of oil and natural gas.
 B: seismologist . . . determines the location, magnitude, and origin of earthquakes and tracks the behavior of earthquake waves to interpret the structure of the Earth.
 C: environmental geologist . . . works to solve problems of pollution, waste disposal, urban development, and hazards such as flooding and erosion.
 D: geophysicist . . . decipher the Earth's interior and magnetic electric, and gravitational fields.
 E: all of the above are properly matched.

17: Of five undisturbed layers, we know that the bottom one is the oldest. This demonstrates the concept of
 A: relative dating.
 B: absolute dating.
 C: catastrophism.
 D: principle of faunal succession.
 E: Darwinism.

18: The supercontinent that existed between 200 million and 300 million years ago, and which has since fragmented into the present continents, is known as
A: Gondwanaland.
B: Laurasia.
C: Pangea.
D: Atlantis.
E: Wegeneria.

19: What concept suggests that sudden events have brought about dramatic changes on the earth?
 A: evolution
 B: uniformitarianism
 C: faunal succession
 D: isostasy
 E:  catastrophism

20: The man who pioneered the continental drift hypothesis was
 A: J. Tuzo Wilson.
 B: Harry Hess.
 C: D. H. Matthews.
 D: Fred Vine.
 E: Alfred Wegener.

21: Plates move together along __________ boundaries.
 A: diverging plate.
 B: convergent plate.
 C: transform fault.
 D: all of the above.
 E: none of the above.

22: Iceland is located along a
 A: divergent boundary.
 B: convergent (oceanic-oceanic) boundary.
 C: convergent (continental-continental) boundary.
 D: convergent (oceanic -continental) boundary.
 E: transform fault boundary.

23: The continents fit together best in the Pangea configuration when
 A: the present shorelines are matched.
 B: shorelines that existed in the distant past are matched.
 C: the outer edges of the continental shelves are matched.
 D: earthquake zones are matched.
 E: the mid-oceanic ridges are matched.

24: The magnetic stripes on the sea floor
 A: record the recent reversal history of the earth's magnetic field.
 B: show a symmetric pattern on either side of a spreading ridge.
 C: are created as magma crystallizes at ridges.
 D: are aligned parallel to the earth's magnetic field at the time they were formed.
 E: all of the above.

25: Having been deposited by water, wind, or ice__________ are deposited in layers on the Earth's surface.
 A: rocks
 B: lavas
 C: continents
 D: sediments
 E: glaciers

26: With the development of radiometric dating techniques, geologists were able to assign _____ ages to the various subdivisions of the geologic time scale.
A: absolute
B: ancient
C: fossil
D: rock
E: relative

27: What type of rock is created from pre-existing rock which is acted upon through heat and pressure?
 A: igneous
 B: metamorphic
 C: sedimentary
 D: stratified

28: To a scientist, what is the relationship between the terms 'hypothesis' and 'theory'?
 A: They are synonymous.
 B: A theory is a simplified hypothesis.
 C: A theory is a definite fact, whereas a hypothesis is a tentative guess.
 D: A theory must be grounded in natural law, but a hypothesis does not require such grounding.
 E: A theory is a hypothesis that has held up over time and withstood all challenges.

29: The Mohorovicic discontinuity is the boundary between
 A: the P-wave and S-wave shadow zones.
 B: the core and mantle.
 C: the lithosphere and asthenosphere.
 D: the crust and mantle.

30: Most of the knowledge about the earth's interior comes from
 A: drilled holes.
 B: volcanic eruptions.
 C: earthquakes and other seismic waves.
 D: exposed surface rocks.
 E: examination of deep mine shafts.

31: Tectonic plates move
 A: from 1 to 10 millimeters per year.
 B: from 1 to 10 centimeters per year.
 C: from 1 to 10 inches per year.
 D: from 1 to 10 feet per year.
 E: from 1 to 10 miles per year.

32: Along a segment of the mid-ocean ridge system, one might expect to rind all of the following activity EXCEPT
 A: hydrothermal vents.
 B: rift valleys.
 C: transform faults.
 D: deep-sea trenches.
 E: submarine volcanoes.

33: Which of the following island chains is the result of intraplate hot-spot activity?
 A: Hawaiian Islands
 B: the Philippines
 C: Aleutian Islands
 D: Japan Islands
 E: the West Indies

34: The Atlantic Ocean floor is spreading at about the same rate as you fingernails grow.  The Pacific Ocean floor is spreading __________ than/as the Atlantic.
 A: much slower
 B: slightly slower
 C: about the same
 D: slightly faster
 E: much faster

35: According to the plate tectonics theory, the crust and a thin slice of upper mantle form the
 A: hydrosphere.
 B: asthenosphere.
 C: upper crust.
 D: outer core.
 E: lithosphere.

36: When two segments of oceanic crust converge, the older oceanic crust is subducted beneath the younger oceanic crust. Which of the following facts is consistent with this statement?
 A: Continental crust is more dense than oceanic crust.
 B: Older oceanic crust is colder and therefore slightly denser than younger oceanic  crust.
 C: Continental crust is too light to be subducted.
 D: Oceanic crust is more dense than continental crust.

37: Which principle states that sediments are deposited in approximately horizontal layers?
 A: original horizontality
 B: gravity
 C: superposition
 D: cross-cutting relationships
 E: faunal succession

38: Essay.  A friend of yours, Thomas, cannot believe the notion that continents move. In plain English, what will you say to this doubting Thomas, to convince him that it does, indeed, happen.