Geology, Test 1
Spring 98 Weekender
1: Approximately how old is the earth currently thought to be?
A: 6000 years.
B: 4.5 million years.
C: 4.5 billion years.
D: 15 billion years.
E: 40 billion years.
2: Which of the following has existed unchanged from the time of earth's
formation to the present?
A: the continents.
B: the atmosphere.
C: mountain ranges.
D: none of the above.
E: Rosann's face.
3: Which of the following is FALSE?
A: Metamorphic rocks always melt and become magma.
B: Igneous rocks may undergo metamorphism.
C: Sedimentary rocks may be weathered.
D: When magma crystallizes, it becomes igneous rock.
4: Which one of the following is the thinnest layer?
A: inner core
B: outer core
5: The San Andreas fault is a well known example of a __________ boundary.
6: New sea floor is created at this type of plate boundary:
7: In science, a tentative, untested explanation is termed a/an
E: none of the above.
8: A scientific _____ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that
scientists agree best explains observable facts.
E: none of the above.
9: When solid rock is exposed at the earth's surface, it is subjected
to the processes of _____which gradually produce sediment.
10: According to the plate tectonics theory, the earth's rigid outer
shelf is broken into individual pieces called
A: hot spots.
C: island archipelagos.
D: crustal plates.
11: Subduction zones are associated with which boundaries of plate tectonics?
C: a transform fault
D: hot spots
12: At both diverging and converging boundaries, magma is created and
cools to form
A: sedimentary rock.
B: metamorphic rock.
C: igneous rock.
D: acid rock.
13: A scientific theory (like plate tectonics or evolution)
A: is so well tested that few scientists doubt its validity.
B: requires many more additional observations before it can be
C: consists of 'educated guesses'.
D: is never subjected to further testing.
E: forms the basis for the development of an hypothesis.
14: Which of the following is the thickest layer?
D: outer core
E: inner core
15: According to the plate tectonics model, the earth's outer shell
is broken into individual
pieces called plates. Upon which plate are you currently residing?
A: the Pacific plate.
B: the Juan de Fuca plate.
C: the North American plate.
D: the Eastern United States plate.
E: the Dinner plate
16: Which of the following is/are properly matched?
A: petroleum geologist . . . involved in the exploration and
production of oil and natural gas.
B: seismologist . . . determines the location, magnitude, and
origin of earthquakes and tracks the behavior of earthquake waves to interpret
the structure of the Earth.
C: environmental geologist . . . works to solve problems of pollution,
waste disposal, urban development, and hazards such as flooding and erosion.
D: geophysicist . . . decipher the Earth's interior and magnetic
electric, and gravitational fields.
E: all of the above are properly matched.
17: Of five undisturbed layers, we know that the bottom one is the oldest.
This demonstrates the concept of
A: relative dating.
B: absolute dating.
D: principle of faunal succession.
18: The supercontinent that existed between 200 million and 300 million
years ago, and which has since fragmented into the present continents,
is known as
19: What concept suggests that sudden events have brought about dramatic
changes on the earth?
C: faunal succession
20: The man who pioneered the continental drift hypothesis was
A: J. Tuzo Wilson.
B: Harry Hess.
C: D. H. Matthews.
D: Fred Vine.
E: Alfred Wegener.
21: Plates move together along __________ boundaries.
A: diverging plate.
B: convergent plate.
C: transform fault.
D: all of the above.
E: none of the above.
22: Iceland is located along a
A: divergent boundary.
B: convergent (oceanic-oceanic) boundary.
C: convergent (continental-continental) boundary.
D: convergent (oceanic -continental) boundary.
E: transform fault boundary.
23: The continents fit together best in the Pangea configuration when
A: the present shorelines are matched.
B: shorelines that existed in the distant past are matched.
C: the outer edges of the continental shelves are matched.
D: earthquake zones are matched.
E: the mid-oceanic ridges are matched.
24: The magnetic stripes on the sea floor
A: record the recent reversal history of the earth's magnetic
B: show a symmetric pattern on either side of a spreading ridge.
C: are created as magma crystallizes at ridges.
D: are aligned parallel to the earth's magnetic field at the
time they were formed.
E: all of the above.
25: Having been deposited by water, wind, or ice__________ are deposited
in layers on the Earth's surface.
26: With the development of radiometric dating techniques, geologists
were able to assign _____ ages to the various subdivisions of the geologic
27: What type of rock is created from pre-existing rock which is acted
upon through heat and pressure?
28: To a scientist, what is the relationship between the terms 'hypothesis'
A: They are synonymous.
B: A theory is a simplified hypothesis.
C: A theory is a definite fact, whereas a hypothesis is a tentative
D: A theory must be grounded in natural law, but a hypothesis
does not require such grounding.
E: A theory is a hypothesis that has held up over time and withstood
29: The Mohorovicic discontinuity is the boundary between
A: the P-wave and S-wave shadow zones.
B: the core and mantle.
C: the lithosphere and asthenosphere.
D: the crust and mantle.
30: Most of the knowledge about the earth's interior comes from
A: drilled holes.
B: volcanic eruptions.
C: earthquakes and other seismic waves.
D: exposed surface rocks.
E: examination of deep mine shafts.
31: Tectonic plates move
A: from 1 to 10 millimeters per year.
B: from 1 to 10 centimeters per year.
C: from 1 to 10 inches per year.
D: from 1 to 10 feet per year.
E: from 1 to 10 miles per year.
32: Along a segment of the mid-ocean ridge system, one might expect
to rind all of the following activity EXCEPT
A: hydrothermal vents.
B: rift valleys.
C: transform faults.
D: deep-sea trenches.
E: submarine volcanoes.
33: Which of the following island chains is the result of intraplate
A: Hawaiian Islands
B: the Philippines
C: Aleutian Islands
D: Japan Islands
E: the West Indies
34: The Atlantic Ocean floor is spreading at about the same rate as
you fingernails grow. The Pacific Ocean floor is spreading __________
than/as the Atlantic.
A: much slower
B: slightly slower
C: about the same
D: slightly faster
E: much faster
35: According to the plate tectonics theory, the crust and a thin slice
of upper mantle form the
C: upper crust.
D: outer core.
36: When two segments of oceanic crust converge, the older oceanic crust
is subducted beneath the younger oceanic crust. Which of the following
facts is consistent with this statement?
A: Continental crust is more dense than oceanic crust.
B: Older oceanic crust is colder and therefore slightly denser
than younger oceanic crust.
C: Continental crust is too light to be subducted.
D: Oceanic crust is more dense than continental crust.
37: Which principle states that sediments are deposited in approximately
A: original horizontality
D: cross-cutting relationships
E: faunal succession
38: Essay. A friend of yours, Thomas, cannot believe the notion
that continents move. In plain English, what will you say to this doubting
Thomas, to convince him that it does, indeed, happen.