PHSC 108-2nd Geology Exam

1: The man who pioneered the continental drift hypothesis was
 A: J. Tuzo Wilson.
 B: Harry Hess.
 C: D. H. Matthews.
 D: Fred Vine.
 E: Alfred Wegener.

2: Geomagnetic reversals
 A: provided strong evidence for sea-floor spreading.
 B: revealed that polar wandering may have occurred.
 C: were discovered by the Deep Sea Drilling Project.
 D: confirmed the existence of subduction zones.
 E: cause the movements of plates.

3: Plates move apart leaving a gap at
 A: divergent plate boundaries.
 B: convergent plate boundaries.
 C: transform fault boundaries.
 D: all of the above.
 E: none of these.

4: Plates move together along _____ boundaries.
 A: diverging plate.
 B: convergent plate.
 C: transform fault.
 D: all of the above.
 E: none of the above.

5: New oceanic crust forms at_____ boundaries.
 A: divergent plate
 B: convergent plate
 C: transform fault
 D: all of the above
 E: none of the above

6: Plates slide past one another at_____ boundaries.
 A: divergent plate
 B: convergent plate
 C: transform fault
 D: all of the above
 E: none of the above

7: The formation off the Hawaiian Islands is associated with
 A: divergent boundaries.
 B: convergent boundaries.
 C: transform fault boundaries.
 D: no plate boundary of any kind.
 E: both a and b.

8: The Himalayan mountains were produced along a
 A: divergent boundary.
 B: convergent (oceanic-oceanic) boundary.
 C: convergent (continental-continental) boundary.
 D: convergent (oceanic -continental) boundary.
 E: transform fault boundary.

9: The San Andreas fault exemplifies this type of plate boundary.
 A: divergent boundary
 B: convergent (oceanic-oceanic) boundary
 C: convergent (continental-continental) boundary
 D: convergent (oceanic-continental) boundary
 E: transform fault boundary

10: The continents fit together best in the Pangea configuration when
 A: the present shorelines are matched.
 B: shorelines that existed in the distant past are matched.
 C: the outer edges of the continental shelves are matched.
 D: earthquake zones are matched.
 E: the mid-oceanic ridges are matched.

11: The island of Hawaii experiences volcanism because it is located
 A: above an active mid-oceanic ridge.
 B: above a hot spot.
 C: above a subduction zone.
 D: along a transform fault.
 E: at a site where two plates are colliding.

12: The pattern of magnetic anomalies on the sea floor most resembles
 A: stripes on a zebra.
 B: spots on a leopard.
 C: splotches on a giraffe.
 D: warts on a toad.
 E: wool on a sheep.

13: The energy that causes plates to move is derived from
 A: tidal forces.
 B: solar energy.
 C: the earth's internal heat.
 D: gravitational energy.
 E: magnetic energy.

14: What is the relative age of the oldest rocks on the floor of the ocean basins?
 A: older than the age of the earth.
 B: the same age as the oldest known rocks on the continents.
 C: much younger than the oldest known rocks on the continents.
 D: the same age as the earth.
 E: unknown.

15: The magnetic stripes on the sea floor
 A: record the recent reversal history of the earth's magnetic field.
 B: shows a symmetric pattern on either side of a spreading ridge.
 C: are created as magma crystallizes at ridges.
 D: are aligned parallel to the earth's magnetic field at the time they were formed.
 E: all of the above.

16: A typical rate of plate motion would be
 A: 1-2 millimeters per year.
 B: 1-2 centimeters per year.
 C: 1-2 meters per year.
 D: 1-2 kilometers per year.
 E: 1-2 millimeters per million years.

17: When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The
 source is also referred to as the
 A: inertial point.
 B: wave front.
 C: focus.
 D: seismic zone.
 E: none of these.

18: The Mercalli scale rates an earthquake's intensity by determining
 A: the amount of damage to structures.
 B: the maximum motion recorded on seismic instruments.
 C: the number of faults in a region.
 D: the height of tsunami.
 E: none of these.

19: The amount of destruction caused by earthquake vibrations is affected by
 A: the design of structures.
 B: the intensity and duration of the vibrations.
 C: the nature of the surface material.
 D: all of the above.
 E: only b and c.

20: Tsunami
 A: are often generated by movements of the ocean floor.
 B: are waves that are produced by tidal forces.
 C: often strike the mainland of Asia, but for unknown reasons do not affect Japan.
 D: all of these.
 E: only a and b.

21: Major earthquakes are often followed by somewhat smaller events known as
 A: aftershocks.
 B: foreshocks.
 C: tremors.
 D: tsunami.
 E: hyposhocks.

22: The instrument which records earthquakes events is known as a
 A: polygraph.
 B: thermograph.
 C: seismograph
 D: seismogram.
 E: epigraph.

23: This type of seismic wave propagates through intervening material by compressing and dilating the rocks in the direction the wave is traveling.
A: P waves
B: S waves
C: surface waves
D: tsunami
E: seiches

24: The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined from
 A: the calculation of the earthquake magnitude.
 B: the intensity of the earthquake.
 C: the length of the seismic record.
 D: the arrival times of  P and S waves.
 E: the measurement of the amplitude of the surface waves.

25: What causes most earthquakes?
 A: movement along fault planes.
 B: folding.
 C: tides.
 D: yuppies in California jumping up and down in unison.

26: What is the minimum number of recording stations necessary to pinpoint the location of the origin of an earthquake?
 A: I
 B: 2
 C: 3
 D: 4
 E:  5

27: On the Richter scale, a difference between an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 and one of 6.0 means that the amplitude difference between these two is how many times?
 A: I
 B: 2
 C: 10
 D: 100
 E: 48

28: The site of the greatest intraplate earthquake in North America is
 A: San Francisco. (1906).
 B: New Madrid, MO, (1811-12).
 C: Loma Prieta, (1989 World Series).
 D: Hop Bottom (PA), (1982).
 E: Allentown (PA), (1995).

29: What type of stress presses rocks against one another?
 A: regional
 B: tensile
 C: compressional
 D: strain
 E: shear

30: California is the site of so much earthquake activity because it is
A: sitting astride a transform boundary between the North American and Pacific plates.
B: it is the site of the subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate.
C: the site of the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the North American plate.
D: being pulled apart at a divergent boundary between the Pacific and North American plates.
E: the site of intraplate earthquakes possibly caused by ancient faults.

31. What is the term for a quiet fault segment between the epicenters of recent great earthquakes?
A: intraplate boundary
B: seismic gap
C: asperity
D: recurrence interval
E.  locus of strain

32: Suppose that you are sailing your boat into a bay in Hawaii. You have just left the deep waters behind you when you hear a radar warning that a tsunami will reach the area in fifteen minutes. Your best chance of escaping would he to
A: jump off your boat and swim for the shore.
B: sail into the protection of the bay.
C: turn around and head directly into the approaching wave.
D: wait for the tsunami and let it carry your boat into the bay.
E: drop the anchor and stay where you are.

33: Most people who die in an earthquake are killed
 A: by falling into cracks in the ground.
 B: by collapsing structures.
 C: by drowning in tsunamis.
 D: by falling trees and flying rocks.
 E: by electrocution.

34: Particles of landfill and loose natural sediments have a tendency to lose contact when
 shaken by an earthquake in a process called
 A: resonance.
 B: seismic layering.
 C: sediment trapping.
 D: surface waving.
 E: liquefaction.