1. appreciate that while they are not now here, our local are was profoundly affected by glaciation.
2. give a general sketch of the extent of glaciation in PA; in your home state.
3. cite several examples of glacial features in this area, or near your home. Cite several examples of US or global features which were shaped by glaciation. How close are you now to the nearest glacier?
4. define 'glacier'.
5. distinguish between a continental (=ice sheet), valley (alpine), and piedmont glacier.
6. distinguish between an ice sheet and ice cap.
7. delineate the factors involved in calculating an area's snow budget: accumulation=ablation. Discuss the roles of precipitation, sublimation, melting, and calving.
8. determine under what conditions might a glacier form in this area? advance? retreat?
9. explain the structural changes which occur as newly fallen snow is changed to firn and finally glacial ice
10. compare Greenland and Antarctica as the two great continental glaciers extant today.
11. sketch a side view of the anatomy of a glacier. Indicate the snow line, zone of fracture, crevasses, zone of plastic flow, and the terminus.
12. use the conveyor belt analogy to describe the movement of ice in a glacier and the deposition of transported materials.
13. recap what was learned by positioning stakes in/on a glacier and observing them through time.
14. indicate the processes that make glaciers one of the most important erosional agents: plucking and abrasion; explain how these processes can cause glacial striations and form roche moutonnées.
15. compare "before and after" sketches of an alpine glacier to identify the features produced: cirque, arête, horn, trough, hanging valley, tarns, paternoster lakes, and fjord.
16. distinguish between the two major categories of glacial deposits (drift): stratified drift and till.
17. define a moraine. Indicate the position of a lateral, median, terminal, ground, and recessional moraine on sketch of the anatomy of a glacier.
18. explain the occurrence of other glacial deposits such as erratics and drumlins.
19. characterize glacial landforms found in stratified drift: outwash plain, esker, kame, kettle.
20. determine the economic value of glacial features and deposits. For instance, why might an economic geologist investigate a medial moraine?
21. discuss how glacial action shaped and formed many lakes and features, such as the Great Salt Lake, the Great Lakes, and Niagara Falls.
22. explain the information which may be obtained from varves, sedimentary deposits in glacial lakes.
23. demonstrate the cyclic nature glaciation by listing the of advances and retreats of ice ages for the past two million years. With each glacial and interglacial period, give its estimated length.
24. explain, in general terms, how glaciologists have been able to piece together this time line.
25. evaluate the different hypotheses which attempt to explain the cause of ice ages: the effect of plate tectonics, the Milankovitch hypothesis, and variations in atmospheric CO2 and dust levels.
Critical Thinking Questions and Activities: