Chapter Guides-Limnology

From Freshwater Ecology:  Concepts & Environmental Applications of Limnology, 2nd ed. by W. Dodds and W. Whiles.

Chapter 1:  Why Study Continental Aquatic Systems?

  1.        Why is freshwater a comparatively scarce commodity?

    2.       Define limnology.

    3.       Briefly summarize the contributions of G. Evelyn Hutchinson to limnology.

    4.       Have a general notion of where the freshwater in the world is located, relative amounts in each place, and residence time in those compartments.

    5.       Have a general understanding of the global hydrologic cycle.

    6.       Distinguish between consumptive and non-consumptive uses of water.

    7.       Which sectors of water users are dominant?

    8.       What is an aquifer?  What is water ‘mining’?

    9.       What are some of the ecosystems goods and services provided by water?

    10.   What is the concept of no net loss of wetlands and why is the mitigation of a lost natural wetland probably not equivalent to a constructed wetland?

    11.   What is the actual value of water?  How can it be determined?

    12.   What are some potential economic benefits to maintaining water quality?

    13.   What are the potential dangers of approaching conservation of aquatic resources form a purely economic standpoint?

    14.   How do the authors think the earth’s warming climate will affect the quality and quantity of freshwater resources?

    15.   Why are most of the world’s major cities located near coasts, lakes, and rivers?

    16.   To whom does freshwater really belong?

    Chapter 2.  Properties of Water.

    1. The descriptors highest, most, and unique are often used to describe water.  Expound on this.

    2. To what property does water owe most of its special properties?

    3. Some terms:  electronegative, polar molecule, hydrogen bonding, salinity, o/oo

    4. What is the impact of temperature and salinity on the density of water?

Description: Guides-Limnology

From Peckarsky, B. L. et al.  1990.  Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Northeastern North America.  Comstock Publishing, Ithaca.  442 pp.  ISBN 978-0-8014-9688-2


Chapter 2.  The Orders of Aquatic Insects and Collembola

  1. Be versatile with the Linnaean classification scheme from domain to species, including common significant suffices (e.g., -idae).
  2. Know the scientific names, properly spelled, for the orders of insects that contain aquatic or semiaquatic species.
  3. Be familiar with the life history patterns that correspond to the terms ametabolous, hemimetabolous, paurometabolous, and holometabolous.  Be able to give an example of an aquatic order for each of these categories.
  4. Distinguish between lotic and lentic habitats.
  5. Give an example of an insect belonging to the following guilds:  shredder, collector, grazer, piercer, engulfer, etc.
  6. Discuss the various methods aquatic insects use to obtain oxygen; generally, how do lotic and lentic species differ in their techniques? (trachea, spiracles, bubbles, cutaneous, etc.
  7. What is the standard preservation method for most aquatic insects?
  8. What are the three major body segments of an idealized insect?

Chapter 3.  Semiaquatic:  Collembola

      1. Briefly describe anatomical structures unique to collembolans.

      2. Common species:  Podura aquatica and Hypogastrura nivicola (snow flea).

Chapter 4.  Ephemeroptera

1.      What does the root ‘ephemera’ indicate?

2.      Briefly describe the life history of a mayfly.

3.      In which stage do mayflies typically overwinter?

4.      Distinguish between univoltine and multivoltine reproductive cycles.

5.      Mayflies have vestigial mouthparts; what does this indicate?

6.      How does the subimago (dun) stage make mayflies unique?

7.      What is the Lake Erie species whose demise contributed significantly to the extinction of Blue Pike?

8.      How many posterior appendages (cerci) do almost all mayflies have?

9.      What are the feeding habits of mayflies?

10.  Some terms: 

a.       Distal vs. proximal…are tarsal claws distal/proximal to the tibia?

b.      Nymph/naiad

c.       Dun/spinner

d.      Instar

e.       Diapause

11.  Suggest a function for mass emergences.

12. Describe the role mayflies play in lake and stream ecosystems.

Chapter 5. Odonata

1.      Give three characteristics to distinguish the Anisoptera from the Zygoptera.

2.      Why do odonates often fly in tandem?

3.      What is the ‘wheel’ position?

4.      Characterize the food and feeding style of odonates.

5.      How many abdominal segments do all odonates have?

6.      Some terms:

1.      Posterolateral

2.      Dorsal/ventral

3.      Seta

4.      Labium

5.      Exuvium

6.      Teneral stage

7.      Oviposition

Chapter 6. Plecoptera

1.      In what habitat are stoneflies most commonly found?

2.      Why are winter stoneflies anomalous?

3.      How many tarsal claws are found on stoneflies?

4.      How many cerci are found on stoneflies?

5.      What is the drift community?

Chapter 7. Aquatic and Semiaquatic Hemiptera

1.      What is the only truly marine insect?

2.      Name two species that are epineustonic.

3.      Because of their mouthparts, what is the feeding style of almost all hemipterans.

Chapter 8.  Trichoptera

1.      Terms:

a.       tricho’

b.      ptera’

c.       Crepuscular

d.      Dorsoventrally/laterally compressed

e.       CPOM/FPOM

2.      Discuss casebuilding by certain groups of caddisflies

Chapter 9.  Aquatic Lepidoptera

1.      What is a proleg?

2.      Not much more to say here…

Chapter 10. Coleoptera

1.      Largest order of insects.

2.      Describe wing configuration:  elytra and hindwing

3.      What is the name of the larval stage?

Chapter 11. Megaloptera.

1.      What is the common name(s) of the larva?

2.      What is the common feeding method?

3.      Are they photopositive?

Chapter 12. Neuroptera

1.      What is their feeding method?  Are they predators or parasites on their hosts?

2.      Are they host specific?

Chapter 13.  Aquatic Diptera

1.      Important groups:  midges (Chironomidae), crane flies (Tipulidae), mosquitoes (Culicidae), black flies (Simulidae), and horse flies (Tabanidae).

2.      Describe the mosquito life history.

Chapter 3:  Movement of Light, Heat, and Chemicals in Water

Light in Water

  1. 1.       Why is light important to aquatic ecosystems?

  2. 2.       How do we measure light?  Be sure to discuss frequency, wavelength, relative amount of energy each ‘color’ of light has, importance (or not) of non-visible ‘colors’.

  3. 3.       What are the possible fates of light when it impinges (strikes) a lake’s surface:  reflected, absorbed, scattered.

  4. 4.       How and why the spectrum of is light different between that which reaches the outside atmosphere and that which reaches a lake’s surface at sea level.

  5. 5.       Discuss the impact of ice and snow cover on a lake.  Be sure to include a discussion of winterkill.

  6. 6.       Refraction is important to land creatures who look into the water, but not to organisms that live there full time.  Why is this so?  Does this explain why whirlygig beetles have split eyes?

  7. 7.       Distinguish between eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oligotrophic waters.

  8. 8.       Discuss how to use a Secchi disc.  Why did Dr. Skinner call it a ‘quick and dirty’ way to quickly evaluate some important characteristics of a lake?

  9. 9.       If 100% of light strikes the top of a lake, not all of it reaches the bottom.  Describe possible fates of light in the water column.  Be sure to use terms like attenuation, extinction, turbidity, and logarithmic.

  10. 10.   If 1500 mmol quanta/m2/sec strikes the top of a lake and 1200 mmol quanta/m2/sec is present at a depth of one meter, what is the attenuation (coefficient of extinction, h) and the percentage transmission per meter?

  11. 11.   As the productivity of a lake increases, what happens to attenuation? Why?

  12. 12.   Some terms

  13. a.       Humic compounds

  14. b.      Allochthonous and autochthonous production

  15. c.       Nanometer (nm), micrometer (mm), micron, and Angstrom (Å).

  16. d.      Solar constant

  17. e.      Photic zone, aphotic zone, compensation depth

  18. 13.   Pure water is crystal clear.  So, why do some lakes look blue, brown, green, or some other color?  Be sure to discuss true and apparent color and what causes these.

  19. 14.   The north pole and the equator receive the same number of hours of daylight but different amounts of quanta in a year.  Explain.

  20. 15.   What is the impact of attenuation on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) received by a plant at 5 m depth in clear water?

  21. 16.   Which of the Great Lakes has the highest

  22. a.       Coefficient of extinction

  23. b.      Secchi depth

  24. c.       Euphotic zone

  25. 17.   What is the impact of floating aquatic macrophytes on light levels of the water column below them?  (It’s more than just shading.)

  26. 18.   What is the importance of light to animals living in lakes?

  27. 19.   We’ve been discussing lakes exclusively.  How is/isn’t this discussion relevant to headwater streams, medium size streams (such as S. Branch Tunkhannock Creek, large streams (Susquehanna River), vernal pools, swamps and other wetlands?